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"The need for a Citizen Jury Model: Partnering with the Public for Governance of Artificial Intelligent Solutions for Integrated HealthCare "


Gaye Stephens

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The accelerating effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence(AI) technology in analysing and making recommendations based on people’s observed behaviour is a growing challenge for society. It is a challenge for individuals and groups faced with requests to consent to collection and processing of personal data with little support available to discern the goals and motivations of actors who seek to engage. It is a challenge for societies and governments as existing economic and employment models are disrupted and AI-driven services impact societies in ways that existing laws, institutions and democratic structures were never designed to govern. Companies at the vanguard of the AI revolution find consumer and citizen trust being eroded when their massive power increasingly collides with societal norms and values.

AI applied to integrated health could improve personal and population health outcomes by discovering more about diseases, treatment options, clinical trial design and precision healthcare. AI governance challenges are particularly intractable in health due to sensitivity of data, complex regulations of ownership, control and access, poor quality integrated data, complex workflows and lack of trust due to opacity of decision making.

AI governance must move to systematically engage societal stakeholders in collective decision-making: make the leap from informed consent to informed debate and deliberative democracy. Thereby allowing citizens to have a direct say in the application of AI in a transparent and traceable manner. As the public have a vested interest in how their health data is used, shared and protected and in Ireland, are funding a multi-million-euro National Electronic Record, it is vital and very timely to include the public voice in a transparent, clear and dynamic way.

Existing standards for social responsibility emphasise the need for community development and involvement. Systemising forms of citizen engagement is also a focus for research and innovation as well as being of increasing importance for user engagement practices in software development. For most organsiations, whether they be public sector, multinationals or SME, the skills and experience for citizen engagement on complex technical and informational issues is hard to come by.

Based on desk research and engagement workshops, this paper concerns challenges of and need for AI governance and design of a Citizen Jury model for public engagement on AI governance in Ireland. The citizen jury model draws on previous work of the Jefferson Center, USA and of University of Manchester and specifically on engagement with Irish patients ,policy makers and system developers.

Uniquely, this model will consider an operational framework involving educational material and operational “know how” on limitations of embedding preferences within operational large-scale, complex, distributed systems.  Tracing jury outcomes of organisations’ policy change and implementation decisions will address transparency and tracking of responses to citizen engagement – demonstrating that citizen voices have been heard and encouraging further engagement. 

How to Cite: Stephens G. \"The need for a Citizen Jury Model: Partnering with the Public for Governance of Artificial Intelligent Solutions for Integrated HealthCare \". International Journal of Integrated Care. 2021;21(S1):103. DOI:
Published on 01 Sep 2021.


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